Wichtiger Hinweis

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Immission control; light immissions and vibrations

Stand: 28.05.2024

Light immissions

Incorrectly positioned or unfavorably aligned light sources can be perceived as a nuisance by the general public. According to the Federal Immission Control Act (BImSchG), light immissions are considered harmful environmental impacts if their nature, extent or duration is likely to cause danger or considerable nuisance to the neighborhood.

Light immissions can be noticeable to neighbors in two ways. On the one hand, the living area (e.g. living rooms and bedrooms, terrace and balcony) can be brightened up. Secondly, a bright light source can cause annoying glare for the person affected, even if it is located at a greater distance, so that it does not produce any significant brightening in the living area. The annoyance is caused by the constant and unwanted distraction of the line of sight to the light source.

Light-emitting systems include artificial light sources of all kinds:

  • Spotlights for illuminating sports facilities
  • street lights
  • illuminated advertisements
  • Illuminated building facades
  • Headlights of motor vehicles
  • Technical equipment such as welding systems or high flares

Strategies for reducing light immission are

  • Use of weaker lamps
  • Installing a screen
  • Aiming the light source specifically at the areas to be illuminated
  • Changing the location of the light source

For the assessment of light immissions, please refer to the information provided by the Länderarbeitsgemeinschaft Immissionsschutz (LAI).

Vibrations / structure-borne noise

Vibrations are low-frequency oscillations that propagate as structure-borne sound waves in the ground and in buildings (in solid bodies). They are caused, for example, by heavy goods traffic on the roads, rail traffic, technical equipment (engines, ventilation systems, pumps and compressors) and the use of heavy construction machinery on building sites. However, very bass-heavy music from powerful amplification systems, e.g. at a discotheque, can also cause vibrations.

Immissions caused by vibrations are perceived by people as vibrations. They can impair well-being, cause considerable nuisance and have a detrimental effect on health.

In rooms intended for permanent occupation by people, perceptible vibrations should be kept to a minimum. The determination and assessment of vibrations is regulated in the standard DIN 4150-2 "Vibrations in buildings - Part 2: Effects on people in buildings". This regulation also specifies reference values for limiting structure-borne noise immissions.

Vibrations can cause damage to buildings (e.g. cracks in the walls). When planning or building new vibration-relevant facilities or traffic routes, the effects of vibrations must be taken into account and investigated. The determination and assessment of vibrations on structures is carried out in accordance with DIN 4150-3 "Vibrations in buildings - Part 3: Effects on structures".

The structure-borne noise caused by a source can cause walls, floors, ceilings, windows or other components to vibrate at the point of impact - i.e. in a common room. These building components then in turn cause the air in the room to vibrate, which is audible as a low-frequency noise and is referred to as secondary airborne sound. Secondary airborne noise is assessed in accordance with the provisions of the Technical Instructions on Noise Abatement (TA Lärm).

Structure-borne noise can also cause secondary effects, e.g. vibrations from lamps, pictures etc. as well as audible rattling of furnishings, vibration of glasses and crockery in cupboards.

Measures to prevent structure-borne noise and secondary airborne noise

  • Use of low-emission work processes
  • Use of machines designed for low emissions
  • emission-reducing measures on the transmission paths: z. e.g. structure-borne sound and vibration-insulated construction, installation, avoidance of rigid connections between machines or machine elements, machine foundations and building foundations as well as building elements and pipelines. Elastic insulating layers or insulating panels, steel spring elements, etc. are suitable for this purpose.
  • Appropriate maintenance intervals
  • Sufficient distance from the emission source

Technical immission control


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91052 Erlangen


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